The Tse Tse is estimated to have had substantial effects on precolonial Africa: a one standard deviation increase in the TSI [Tse Tse suitability index] is associated with a 23 percentage point decrease in the likelihood an African ethnic group had large domesticated animals, a nine percentage point decrease in intensive cultivation and a six percentage point reduction in plow use. A one standard deviation increase in the TSI is correlated with a 53 percent reduction in historical population density….
The TSI has a negative correlation with current economic outcomes as measured by satellite light density or the observed cattle distribution in Africa. The modern analysis is performed at the district level and is robust to including country fixed effects. The evidence suggests that the relationship between the TSI and satellite lights is driven by the Tse Tse’s effect on shaping historical institutions, particularly political centralization.
You can find the entire paper here.
HT Tyler Cowen.