President Kenyatta has announced 16 of 18 cabinet secretaries in his administration. The list of names has elicited mixed reactions. On the one hand the manner of the announcement – on the steps of State House – was different, and dignified. It was much less pedestrian than what Kenyans had become used to – presidential cabinet appointments via press releases to newsrooms. Six women made the list, including in the powerful Defense and Foreign Affairs dockets. With the exception of Balala and Ngilu, all the nominees so far are not politicians.
But on the other other hand grumblings emerged on the lack of regional (read ethnic) balance in the appointments. Kenya is an ethnically fragmented country, with 11 (out of 42) ethnic groups with populations over 1 million (Kikuyu/GEMA, Luhya, Kalenjin, Luo, Kamba, Somali, Kisii, Meru (part of GEMA), Mijikenda, Turkana, Maasai). For most of the country’s history ethnicity has been a key organizing principle of politics, with people largely voting along ethnic lines for various instrumental reasons.
So what is the ethnic breakdown of Kenyatta’s cabinet so far? Here is my guestimation based on their last names: Kikuyu (3), Kalenjin (4), Somali (3), Luo (1), Meru (1), Kisii (1), Kamba (1), Luhya (1), Arab (1). Two slots remain unoccupied.
Only two groups (Kalenjins and Somalis) are clearly overrepresented in the cabinet appointments in proportion to their relative ethnic group size in the country (Kalenjin 25% vs 13.2%; Somalis 18.75 vs 6.3%). Those groups in the top ten that are underrepresented missed their “objective proportion” of the cabinet by about one slot, on average.
On an aside, historically African presidents have actually been pretty good at ethnic balancing in the appointment of cabinet ministers – as Francois, Rainer and Trebbi show in this paper. They claim to “show that African ruling coalitions are large and that political power is allocated proportionally to population shares across ethnic groups. This holds true even restricting the analysis to the subsample of the most powerful ministerial posts. We argue that the likelihood of revolutions from outsiders and the threat of coups from insiders are major forces explaining such allocations.”
If the ethnic composition of the cabinet is anything to go by, it shows the extent to which deputy president William Ruto is more of an equal than deputy to President Kenyatta. His part of the Jubilee coalition dominates the list of cabinet nominees. Or it might just be a case of Mr. Kenyatta, being president, having opted to have his half of the cabinet “represent the face of Kenya” (Kenyatta and Ruto had a 50-50 pre-election appointments sharing agreement at the formation of the Jubilee coalition).
Despite Kenyans’ relief at the end of Odinga and Kibaki’s coalition government, the era of nusu mkate might still be among us.
In related news, president Kenyatta broke one of his campaign promises by not appointing an ethnic Turkana as secretary in charge of Energy and Petroleum. Kenya’s oil discoveries have been mostly in Turkana County. The Standard reports:
Uhuru [President Kenyatta] repeated he will appoint a Turkana to head the Ministry of Energy portfolio should he take over the next Government.
Kenyatta said his Government would give first priority to locals to manage the oil resources that were discovered in the area.
“Our mandate is to ensure that every Kenyan gets equal share of national cake. But locals where such resources are found should benefit more as a right stipulated in the Constitution,” he said.
Deputy President William Ruto also broke a promise he made yesterday. He said at a presser that the cabinet will not have any politicians, yet Charity Ngilu and Najib Balala have been nominated.
Kenyatta’s Cabinet Nominees:
- Fred Matiang’i (Information, Communication and Technology) – Kisii
- Henry K. Rotich (The National Treasury) – Kalenjin
- James Wainaina Macharia (Health) – Kikuyu
- Amb Amina Mohamed (Foreign Affairs) – Somali
- Adan Mohammed (Industrialisation) – Somali
- Ann Waiguru (Devolution and Planning) – Kikuyu
- Davis Chirchir (Energy and Petroleum) – Kalenjin
- Amb Raychelle Omamo (Defence) – Luo
- Eng Michael Kamau (Transport and Infrastructure) – Kikuyu
- Phyllis Chepkosgey (East African affairs, Commerce and Tourism) – Kalenjin
- Prof Jacob Kaimenyi (Education) – Meru
- Felix Kosgey (Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries) – Kalenjin
- Prof Judy Wakhungu (Environment Water and Natural Resources) – Luhya
- Dr Hassan Wario (Sports, Culture and Arts) – Somali
- Najib Balala (Mining) – Arab
- Charity Ngilu (Lands, Housing and Urban Development) – Kamba
- Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Services (Vacant)
- Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government (Vacant)
Dr Wario, according tour last name criterion, would be Borana and not Somali.
Population of the Maasai and Turkana must have spiked since 2001 census.