“The canonical story of the lone genius inventor is largely a myth. Edison didn’t invent the light bulb; he found a bamboo fiber that worked better as a filament in the light bulb developed by Sawyer and Man, who in turn built on lighting work done by others. Bell filed for his telephone patent on the very same day as an independent inventor, Elisha Gray; the case ultimately went to the U.S. Supreme Court, which filled an entire volume of U.S. Reports resolving the question of whether Bell could have a patent despite the fact that he hadn’t actually gotten the invention to work at the time he filed. The Wright Brothers were the first to fly at Kitty Hawk, but their plane didn’t work very well, and was quickly surpassed by aircraft built by Glenn Curtis and others – planes that the Wrights delayed by over a decade with patent lawsuits.
The point can be made more general: surveys of hundreds of significant new technologies show that almost all of them are invented simultaneously or nearly simultaneously by two or more teams working independently of each other. Invention appears in significant part to be a social, not an individual, phenomenon. Inventors build on the work of those who came before, and new ideas are often “in the air,” or result from changes in market demand or the availability of new or cheaper starting materials. And in the few circumstances where that is not true – where inventions truly are “singletons” – it is often because of an accident or error in the experiment rather than a conscious effort to invent. “
That is Mark Lemley of Stanford Law School. More on this here.
H/T Derek Thomson over at The Atlantic.
Reminds me of the oft misrepresented meme that Charles Darwin came up with the Origin of the Species when he clearly lifted the idea from a book titled The Muqaddimah written in 1377 by Ibn Khalduna. A seminal work which for its time hinted at genetics being the essence of species. Darwins’ idea had so many holes in it. Evidently. He couldn’t explain how and why evolution happened. He just band aids it as survial for the fittest. Sham!